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Table 5 Patient characteristics for each group

From: The relationship between patients’ perception of type 2 diabetes and medication adherence: a cross-sectional study in Japan

  Group1 Group2 Group3 Group4 p-valuea
n % n % n % n %
Gender male 45 68.2 13 76.5 40 69.0 12 66.7 0.917
female 21 31.8 4 23.5 18 31.0 6 33.3
Age (year) median 68 (10.3) 65 (11.6) 69 (10.7) 60 (13.6) 0.011*
[range] [34–88]   [32–76]   [42–88]   [35–83]  
BMI median
[range]
23.4
[15.2–34.8]
  23.5
[15.9–29.6]
  24.7
[18.6–34.0]
  26.2
[17.7–32.7]
  0.014*
Diabetes duration (year) median
[range]
15
[0–53]
  10
[1–25]
  11
[0–55]
  10
[1–25]
  0.270
HbA1c (%) median
[range]
7.0
[4.4–9.2]
  7.4
[5.6–10.0]
  6.9
[5.9–10.6]
  7.4
[5.8–9.9]
  0.111
Diabetes history of relatives of Relatives yes 45 68.2 10 58.8 24 41.4 9 50.0 0.026*
no 21 31.8 7 41.2 34 58.6 9 50.0
Complications Diabetic retinopathy 8 12.1 1 5.9 5 8.6 0 0.0 0.419
Nephropathy 4 6.1 0 0.0 6 10.3 0 0.0 0.264
Neuropathy 8 12.1 3 17.6 5 8.6 0 0.0 0.316
Heart disease 12 18.2 1 5.9 4 6.9 1 5.6 0.150
none 41 62.1 12 70.6 37 63.8 17 88.9 0.176
Therapy Exercise therapy 22 33.3 5 29.4 18 31.0 7 38.9 0.923
Dietary Therapy 29 43.9 10 58.8 25 43.1 7 38.9 0.638
Insulin therapy 20 30.3 8 47.1 18 31.0 8 44.4 0.424
Number of medications median
[range]
5
[5.6–10.0]
  5
[1–13]
  5
[1–15]
  6
[2–11]
  0.849
Number of doses per day median
[range]
9
[1–28]
  7
[1–23]
  8
[0–50]
  8
[2–20]
  0.543
Diabetes knowledge average (SD)
[range]
10.5
(2.9)
[0–16]
  10
(2.1)
[5–13]
  9.0
(4.0)
[0–15]
  9.3
(3.3)
[0–14]
  0.321
Patient’s perception Factor 1. Feeling of inferiority 2.9
(2.3)
[0–8]
  2.9
(2.0)
[0–6.6]
  3.1
(2.4)
[0–10]
  3.8
(2.3)
[0–8]
  0.515
  Factor 2. Living a tidy life 7.5
(1.8)
[3–10]
  6.6
(1.2)
[5–9]
  6.8
(2.3)
[0–10]
  5.6
(2.4)
[1–9.33]
  0.012*
  Factor 3. Feeling of restriction 5.3
(1.9)
[0.8–9]
  5.9
(1.7)
[1–7.8]
  5.0
(1.9)
[0.2–8]
  4.8
(1.9)
[1–7.4]
  0.209
  Factor 4. Feeling miserable 5.3
(2.1)
[0–9.33]
  5.4
(1.8)
[2.33–9.33]
  5.4
(2.3)
[0–10]
  5.1
(2.0)
[1.67–9]
  0.980
  Factor 5. Feeling of getting into trouble 4.0
(2.2)
[0–9.33]
  4.2
(1.7)
[0.83–7]
  3.9
(1.7)
[0.5–9.67]
  3.1
(1.6)
[0–6.33]
  0.282
  Factor 6. Feeling of overindulgence 6.7
(1.9)
[0–10]
  6.2
(1.7)
[4–10]
  6.0
(1.9)
[0.67–9.33]
  5.4
(1.9)
[2.33–9]
  0.044*
  Factor 7. Feeling of portentous 6.4
(1.8)
[2–10]
  7.3
(1.4)
[4.33–10]
  6.5
(2.3)
[0.67–10]
  5.9
(1.9)
[2–9]
  0.181
  1. aKruskal–Wallis test was used to test the mean difference among four groups. Fisher’s exact test was used to test the distribution difference of categories between individuals at the hospital and the community pharmacy. BMI, body mass index. *significant at 0.05 level