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Table 1 Baseline of demographic characteristics and laboratory data

From: Pharmacist medication instructions are associated with continued medication self-management in older adults: a retrospective observational study

Characteristic All patients
(n = 134)
Continuation group
(n = 81)
Non-continuation group
(n = 53)
p value
Age (y) 82 (76–85) 80 (73–84) 83 (80.5–88) 0.0013
Gender n, (%)     0.4166§
 Male 50 (37.3) 28 (34.6) 22 (41.5)  
 Female 84 (62.7) 53 (65.4) 31 (58.5)  
Length of stay (d) 42 (29–55.8) 40 (28.5–58.5) 45 (29–54) 0.5571
Body weight at admission (kg) 50 (44–60) 51 (43.1–63.9) 48.2 (42–56.8) 0.0502
BMI at admission (kg/m2) 21.4 (18.8–24.1) 22.1 (19.2–25.1) 20.7 (17.8–23.2) 0.0115
Primary diagnosis n, (%)     0.6419§
 Cerebral infraction 10 (7.5) 6 (7.4) 4 (7.6)  
 Intracerebral hemorrhage 7 (5.2) 3 (3.7) 4 (7.6)  
 Subarachnoid hemorrhage 2 (1.5) 2 (2.5) 0 (0)  
 Osteoporosis–related disease 104 (77.6) 64 (79.0) 40 (75.4)  
 Hospital-associated deconditioning 1 (0.7) 1 (1.2) 0 (0)  
 Others 10 (7.5) 5 (6.2) 5 (9.4)  
Comorbid conditions n, (%)
 Cardiac disease 18 (13.3) 11 (13.6) 7 (13.2) 0.9507§
 Diabetes mellitus 30 (22.2) 15 (18.5) 15 (28.3) 0.1840§
 Hypertension 87 (64.4) 58 (71.6) 29 (54.7) 0.0452§
 Dyslipidemia 40 (29.6) 31 (38.3) 9 (17) 0.0085§
 Dementia 2 (1.5) 0 (0) 2 (3.8) 0.0782§
 Epilepsy 3 (2.2) 1 (1.2) 2 (3.8) 0.3313§
 Parkinson’s disease 2 (1.5) 1 (1.2) 1 (1.9) 0.7608§
Family cooperation n, (%) 117 (87.3) 72 (88.9) 45 (84.9) 0.4981§
HDS-R 25 (21–28) 26 (23–28) 23 (19–26) 0.0011§
Upper limb paralysis n, (%) 22 (16.3) 12 (14.8) 10 (18.9) 0.5357§
Higher brain dysfunction n, (%) 24 (17.9) 9 (11.1) 15 (28.3)  
Vision loss n, (%) 14 (10.4) 9 (11.1) 5 (9.4) 0.7563§
No. of medications at admission 6.7 ± 3.5 6.8 ± 3.2 6.8 ± 3.8 0.8388§
medication instruction n, (%) 134 (100) 81 (100) 53 (100) 0.2146§
No. of medication instructions 6 (4–9) 7 (5–10) 5 (2.5–7) <.0001
FIM at admission (points)
 FIM–M 50 (33–60) 52 (37.5–59) 46 (29.5–63.6) 0.1497
 FIM–C 30 (26–35) 32 (29–35) 28 (21.5–33) 0.0011
 FIM–T 79 (63–92) 82 (69.5–93) 73 (57.5–91.5) 0.0166
FIM at discharge (points)
 FIM–M 82 (74–86) 83 (76.5–86) 78 (67–85) 0.0084
 FIM–C 34 (30–35) 35 (32–35) 30 (26–34.5) <.0001
 FIM–T 114 (103.5–119.5) 117 (108.3–121) 109 (93.5–115.5) 0.0004
Clinical laboratory data at admission
 Alb (g/dL) 3.4 ± 0 .6 3.5 ± 0.5 3.2 ± 0.7 0.0097
 CRP (mg/dL) 0.46 (0.19–1.30) 0.41 (0.11–1.15) 0.68 (0.27–1.39) 0.2354
  1. Abbreviations: Alb Albumin, BMI Body mass index, CRP C-reactive protein, FIM Functional Independence Measure, HDS-R Hasegawa dementia rating scale-revised
  2. †: Mann–Whitney U test, ‡: t–test, §: Chi–square test