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Table 3 Changes in ASK-20 scores from baseline to the end of the study period

From: Pharmacist involvement in the inhaler choice improves lung function in patients with COPD: a prospective single-arm study

ASK-20 components Baseline (n = 36) End (n = 36) P* P
Score Barriers Score Barriers
Mean SD n (%) Mean SD n (%)
Lifestyle
 Q1 I just forget to take my medicines some of the time. 1.83 1.26 7 (19.4) 1.61 1.03 4 (11.1) 0.42 1.0
 Q2 I run out of my medicine because I don’t get refills on time. 1.28 0.84 2 (5.6) 1.06 0.23 0 0.13 0.53
 Q3 My use of alcohol gets in the way of taking my medicines. 1.11 0.39 0 1.06 0.23 0 0.47 1.0
 Q4 I worry about how medicine will affect my sexual health. 1.03 0.16 0 1.03 0.16 0 1.0 1.0
 Q5 I sometimes forget things that are important to me. 2.25 1.34 8 (22.2) 1.67 0.94 3 (8.3) 0.04 < 0.001
 Q6 I have felt sad, down, or blue during the past month. 1.92 1.30 3 (8.3) 1.36 0.85 0 0.04 0.29
Attitudes and Beliefs
 Q7 I feel confident that each one of my medicines will help me. 2.17 1.32 11 (30.6) 1.36 0.58 1(2.8) < 0.01 < 0.01
 Q8 I know if I am reaching my health goals. 3.08 1.21 24 (66.7) 1.72 0.65 4 (11.1) < 0.0001 < 0.001
Help from Others
 Q9 I have someone I can call with questions about my medicines. 2.75 1.44 12 (33.3) 1.42 0.60 0 < 0.0001 0.01
Talking with the Healthcare Team
 Q10 I understand my doctor’s/pharmacist’s instructions about the medicines I take. 1.81 0.91 5 (13.9) 1.61 0.89 3 (8.3) 0.37 1.0
 Q11 My doctor/pharmacists and I work together to make decisions. 3.56 1.48 23 (63.9) 1.50 0.69 2 (5.56) < 0.0001 < 0.0001
 Q12 I am able to read and understand pill bottle labels. 2.19 1.24 13 (36.4) 1.42 0.83 3 (8.3) 0.003 0.13
Taking Medicines
 Q13 Taking medicines more than once a day is inconvenient. 2.56 1.44 11 (30.6) 1.39 0.76 1 (2.8) < 0.0001 0.24
 Q14 I have to take too many medicines a day. 2.33 1.35 8 (22.2) 1.39 0.76 2 (5.6) < 0.001 0.30
 Q15 It is hard for me swallow the pills I have to take. 1.56 0.68 0 1.08 0.36 0 < 0.001 1.0
Have you …
 Q16 Taken a medicine more or less often than prescribed? 1.78 1.36 6 (16.7) 1.28 0.69 3 (8.3) 0.06 1.0
 Q17 Skipped or stopped taking a medicine because you didn’t think it was working? 1.42 1.01 4 (11.1) 1.03 0.16 0 0.03 0.29
 Q18 Skipped or stopped taking a medicine because it made you feel bad? 1.28 0.84 2 (5.6) 1.06 0.16 1 (2.8) 0.15 1.0
 Q19 Skipped, stopped, not refilled, or taken less medicine because of the cost? 1.03 0.16 0 1.0 0 0 0.32 1.0
 Q20 Not had medicine with you when it was time to take it? 1.92 1.30 5 (13.9) 1.11 0.31 0 < 0.001 0.15
  1. The study period was 26 ± 2 weeks. *Paired t-test for the change in mean score from baseline to end. Fisher’s exact test for the prevalence of barriers between baseline and end