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Table 1 Pharmacokinetic parameters of atenolol after oral administration in rats

From: Influence of osmolality on gastrointestinal fluid volume and drug absorption: potential impact on oral salt supplementation

Pharmacokinetic parameters a Purified Water Hyperosmotic Solution
(10% NaCl)
(n = 6) (n = 6)
AUC0–7 (ng·h/mL) 212 ± 11 89.0 ± 25.4**
AUC0-∞ (ng·h/mL) 231 ± 11 92.9 ± 27.6**
Cmax (ng/mL) 68.4 ± 4.7 37.6 ± 9.2*
tmax (h) 2.30 ± 0.30 1.92 ± 0.08
t1/2 (h) 1.59 ± 0.15 1.38 ± 0.41
  1. Atenolol (1 mg/kg, 0.25 mg/mL) was orally administered with purified water or hyperosmotic solution (10% NaCl)
  2. a AUC area under plasma concentration-time curve; Cmax maximum plasma concentration; tmax time to reach maximum plasma concentration; t1/2 elimination half-life
  3. The statistical significance between the different conditions was evaluated using an unpaired Student t-test. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, significantly different from control values. Data are shown as means ± S.E. (n = 6)