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Table 1 Characteristics of cohort studies included in the present meta-analysis

From: A meta-analysis of observational studies on anticholinergic burden and fracture risk: evaluation of conventional burden scales

Study Country Sample
(AC drug user, (n))
Age Anatomical site of fracture AC burden scale Mean follow-up Adjusted for confounders
Bali et al. (2016) [33] USA 9240
67 ≥ 65 yr hip ARS, ACB, ADS* 2.0 years age, sex, race, co-medications,
and illness history during 1-year baseline period
Crispo et al. (2016) [34] Canada 16,302
47 ≥ 70 yr: 82.3% any fracture ARS 3–6 days: 2463 persons
7–30 days: 5799 persons
≥31 days: 141 persons
age, sex, race, length of stay, Elixhauser comorbidity score, census region, urban/rural status, hospital size (number of beds), and hospital teaching status
Hsu et al. (2017) [20] Taiwan 116,043
50 ≥ 65 yr any fracture ARS, ACB, DBI-Ach 8.3 years sex and time-varying comorbidities (annually measured by Carlson Comorbidity Index)
Ishida et al. (2019) [35] USA 60,007
56 ≥ 65 yr hip, femur, pelvis, foot, arm, hand, or axial skeleton ACB** 243 days****** age, sex, race, duration on dialysis, network, BMI, alcohol dependence,
coronary artery disease, cancer, other cardiac disease, dysrhythmia,
congestive heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes,
drug dependence, opioid dependence, hypertension,
inability to ambulate, inability to transfer,
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, peripheral vascular disease, tobacco dependence, dementia, depression, seizure/epilepsy
liver disease, medication burden, and concomitant medications
Kao et al. (2018) [36] Taiwan 14,635
69 52.0 ± 16.9 yr (study cohort)
51.9 ± 17.1 yr (control)
any fracture ACB*** 3.0 years monthly income, geographical region, urbanization level, and comorbidities
Lu et al. (2015) [37] Taiwan 59,042
49 ≥ 65 yr any fracture ARS 7.95 ± 3.03 years age, sex, and time-varying comorbidities
Moga et al. (2013) [39] USA 6594
4 ≥ 65 yr hip or
any fracture
ARS, ACB, ADS**** AC drug users: 49 days (median)
AC drug nonusers: 95 days (median)
demographic characteristics, continence status (bladder and bowel), continence management, preexistent urinary tract infections, body mass index, comorbidities, other medication use, cognitive status, mobility at baseline
Sørensen et al. (2013) [40] Denmark 2224
not mention 68.6 ± 12.8 yr hip ARS, ACB, ADS***** not mention age at diagnosis (schizophrenia), sex, alcohol misuse, somatic score
  1. AC: anticholinergic, ARS: anticholinergic risk scale, ACB: anticholinergic cognitive burden, ADS: anticholinergic drug scale
  2. *AC drug used was paroxetine, which is 1 point on ARS, 3 points on ACB, and 1 point on ADS
  3. ** AC drugs used were amitriptyline, paroxetine, doxepin, nortriptyline, imipramine, desipramine and clomipramine, which are 3 points on ACB; and protriptyline which is not listed on ACB. Since less than 10 (0.01%) patients were taking protriptyline, we categorized all drugs use as ACB 3 points
  4. *** AC drugs used were oxybutynin, trospium, tolterodine, solifenacin and propiverine, which are 3 points on ACB
  5. **** AC drug used was oxybutynin, which is 3 points on ARS, ACB, and ADS
  6. ***** AC drugs used included risperidone, which is1 point on ARS and ACB; quetiapine which is 1 point on ARS and 3 points on ACB; olanzapine, which is 2 points on ARS, 3 points on ACB and 1 point on ADS; and aripiprazole, which is 1 point on ACB
  7. ******Follow-up period was calculated using fracture rate (6 events per 100 person-years) and number of fractures (4% of the cohort) described in the article