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Table 2 Characteristics of case-control studies included in the present meta-analysis

From: A meta-analysis of observational studies on anticholinergic burden and fracture risk: evaluation of conventional burden scales

Study Country Sample size
Age Female
Anatomical site of fracture AC burden scale AC exposure Adjusted for confounders
Chatterjee et al. (2016) [19] USA 202,260
81.1 ± 7.4 yr 85 hip or femur ADS prescribed 30–90 days before fracture age, sex, medications, race, medications (cardiovascular drugs, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, and benzodiazepines), and comorbidities (dementia, mood disorders, anxiety, schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease, insomnia, cerebrovascular events,
osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis), and duration of depression
Machado-Duque et al. (2018) [38] Colombia 900
81.6 ± 8.9 yr 71 hip ARS prescribed 30 days before fracture use of statins, proton pump inhibitors, corticosteroids, oral antidiabetics, polypharmacy (≥ 5 drugs), and treatment city
  1. AC anticholinergic, ARS anticholinergic risk scale, ADS anticholinergic drug scale