Skip to main content

Table 2 Physiological, experimental, and final calculated parameters for loxoprofen PBPK model established in this study

From: Pharmacokinetics of loxoprofen in a self-administered overdose in a Japanese patient admitted to hospital

Parameter Loxoprofen Reduced trans-alcohol metabolite of loxoprofen
Model input parameters
 Molecular weight 246 248
 Octanol–water partition coefficient 1.97 2.23
 Plasma unbound fraction 0.0681 0.0559
 Blood–plasma concentration ratio 0.799 0.782
 Liver–plasma concentration ratio 1.15 1.49
 Fraction absorbed × intestinal availability 1
 Absorption rate constant, 1/h 6.17 ± 0.27 a
 Volume of systemic circulation, L 4.67 ± 0.17 a 11.4 ± 0.3 a
 Hepatic intrinsic clearance, L/h 76.3 ± 0.3 a 215 ± 1 a
 Hepatic clearance, L/h 4.93 10.7
 Renal clearance, L/h 0.10 1.1
Estimated values c
 Cmax in plasma, ng/mL 6940 (0.97) b 770 (0.86) b
 AUC in plasma, ng h/mL 11,400 (1.1)b 2380 (0.90) b
Reported levels
 Cmax in plasma, ng/mL d 7160 896
 AUC in plasma, ng h/mL d 10,700 2650
 Bioavailability d 1
 Urinary excretion of unchanged drug d 0.02
  1. The plasma unbound fraction, octanol–water partition coefficient, blood-to-plasma concentration ratio, and liver-to-plasma concentration ratio of loxoprofen and the reduced trans-alcohol metabolite of loxoprofen were estimated using in silico tools [15]
  2. a Data are means ± standard deviations by fitting to observed concentrations
  3. b Values in parentheses are ratios to the reported/observed values
  4. c PBPK modeled values for a virtual administration of 60 mg loxoprofen
  5. d Taken from the literature [4, 14], as shown in Fig. 1A