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Table 1 Pharmacy student bone-related characteristics by sex

From: Instructing students to measure their own bone density and prepare a simulated health class during pharmacy school improves their awareness and understanding of osteoporosis prevention

Variables Male (n = 48) Female (n = 52) p valuea
Age, Mean (SD) 21.5 (3.0) 20.5 (1.7) 0.047
BMI, Mean (SD) 23.1 (4.3) 21.1 (4.2) 0.017
Smoking status, No. (%)      0.002
 Never smoked 34 (70.8) 50 (96.2)  
 Current smoker 11 (22.9) 2 (3.8)  
 Former smoked 3 (6.3) 0 (0)  
History of fracture, No. (%) 19 (39.6) 16 (30.8) 0.356
Family history of osteoporosis, No. (%) 2 (4.2) 3 (5.8) 0.713
Amount of exercise (min/week) b, Mean (SD)      
 Present 130.5 (203.3) 39.5 (102.1) 0.005
 During their high school days 550.4 (536.5) 313.3 (487.1) 0.023
 During their elementary and junior high school days 796.5 (464.1) 608.0 (601.1) 0.084
Self-evaluation if they maintain nutritious and balanced diet (carbohydrate, protein and fat etc.), No. (%)      0.212
 Well 4 (8.3) 7 (13.5)  
 Slightly well 7 (14.6) 10 (19.2)  
 Neither 15 (31.3) 14 (26.9)  
 Not so good 15 (31.3) 19 (36.5)  
 Poor 7 (14.6) 2 (3.8)  
  1. a P-values for comparisons between males and females using unpaired t-tests, Chi-square tests, or Mann–Whitney U-tests
  2. bAmount of exercise accumulated throughout a week